1.7 Information Sharing and Confidentiality
SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER
For additional guidance see Information Sharing: Advice for practitioners providing safeguarding services to children, young people, parents and carers (March 2014). Norfolk Safeguarding Children Board Partners have signed up to an information sharing agreement. As part of ongoing work to develop and improve monitoring arrangements. For more information contact the NSCB Business Manager.
In November 2015 this chapter was revised to reflect Information Sharing: Advice for practitioners providing safeguarding services to children, young people, parents and carers (March 2015).
1.1 Sharing information is vital for early intervention to ensure that children with additional needs receive the services they require. It is also essential to protect children from suffering or likely to suffer Significant Harm.
1.2 Practitioners are sometimes uncertain about when they can share information lawfully. It is important therefore that they:
- Understand and apply good practice in sharing information at an early stage as part of preventative work;
- Are clear that information can be shared where they judge that a child is suffering or likely to suffer Significant Harm; and
- Understand what information is and is not confidential, and the need in some circumstances to make a judgement about whether confidential information can be shared, in the public interest, without consent.
2. Key Points on Information Sharing
2.1 It is important that each agency involved in providing services to children and families has a systematic approach to explain to children and families when they first access services, openly and honestly, what and how information will, or could be shared and why, and seek their agreement.
The general principle is that information will only be shared with the consent of the subject of the information.
2.2 In some circumstances, however, it will not be appropriate to seek consent before sharing information with others and/or information can be shared where consent has been refused.
The exception to this is where to do so would:
- Place the child or others at increased risk of suffering or likely to suffer Significant Harm; or
- Place an adult at risk of serious harm; or
- Undermine the prevention, detection or prosecution of a serious crime (i.e. any crime which causes or is likely to cause Significant Harm to a child or serious harm to an adult) including where seeking consent might lead to interference with any potential investigation.
This may be the case where making a referral to Children’s Social Care Services under the Referrals Procedure.
2.3 Practitioners must also share information when they are in situations where there is a statutory duty or Court Order requiring the information to be shared. In such situations, information should be shared even if consent has not been given. However, wherever possible, the individual concerned should be informed about the information to be shared, the reasons and to whom it will be disclosed.
2.4 Practitioners must always consider the safety and welfare of a child when making decisions on whether to share information about the child. Where there is concern that the child may be suffering or likely to suffer Significant Harm, the child’s safety and welfare must be the overriding consideration.
2.5 Practitioners should, where possible, respect the wishes of children or families who do not consent to share confidential information. However, they may still share information if in their judgement there is sufficient need to override that lack of consent.
2.6 Practitioners should seek advice where they are in doubt, especially where the doubt relates to as concern about possible Significant Harm to a child or serious harm to others.
2.7 Practitioners should ensure that the information they share is accurate and up-to-date, necessary for the purpose for which they are sharing it, shared only with those people who need to see it, and shared securely.
2.8 Practitioners should always record the reasons for their decision – whether it is to share information or not.
3. The Seven Golden Rules for Information Sharing
- Remember that the Data Protection Act 1998 and human rights laws are not barriers to justified information sharing but provide a framework to ensure that personal information about living individuals is shared appropriately;
- Be open and honest with the individual (and/or their family where appropriate) from the outset about why, what, how and with whom information will, or could be shared, and seek their agreement, unless it is unsafe or inappropriate to do so;
- Seek advice from other practitioners if you are in any doubt about sharing the information concerned, without disclosing the identity of the individual where possible;
- Share with informed consent where appropriate and, where possible, respect the wishes of those who do not consent to share confidential information. You may still share information without consent if, in your judgement, there is good reason to do so, such as where safety may be at risk. You will need to base your judgment on the facts of the case. When you are sharing or requesting personal information from someone, be certain of the basis upon which you are doing so. Where you have consent, be mindful that an individual might not expect information to be shared.
- Consider safety and well-being: Base your information sharing decisions on considerations of the safety and wellbeing of the individual and others who may be affected by their actions;
- Necessary, proportionate, relevant, accurate, timely and secure: Ensure that the information you share is necessary for the purpose for which you are sharing it, is shared only with those people who need to have it, is accurate and up-to-date, is shared in a timely fashion, and is shared securely (Practitioners must always follow their organisation’s policy on security for handling personal information);
- Keep a record of your decision and the reasons for it – whether it is to share information or not. If you decide to share, then record what you have shared, with whom and for what purpose.Source:- Information sharing: Advice for practitioners providing safeguarding services (March 2015)
The Information sharing guidance for Practitioners makes a point which should be borne in mind. Information can be held in many different ways, in case records or electronically in a variety of IT systems with access for different professionals. The use of emails in professional communications also raises another mechanism for sharing information other than in direct person to person contact. However the information is shared, it should always be recorded in the individual’s record.
4. The Principles
The principles set out below are intended to help practitioners working with children, young people, parents and carers share information between organisations. Practitioners should use their judgement when making decisions on what information to share and when and should follow organisation procedures or consult with their manager if in doubt. The most important consideration is whether sharing information is likely to safeguard and protect a child.
Necessary and proportionate
When taking decisions about what information to share, you should consider how much information you need to release. The Data Protection Act 1998 requires you to consider the impact of disclosing information on the information subject and any third parties. Any information shared must be proportionate to the need and level of risk.
Only information that is relevant to the purposes should be shared with those who need it. This allows others to do their job effectively and make sound decisions.
Information should be adequate for its purpose. Information should be of the right quality to ensure that it can be understood and relied upon.
Information should be accurate and up to date and should clearly distinguish between fact and opinion. If the information is historical then this should be explained.
Information should be shared in a timely fashion to reduce the risk of harm. Timeliness is key in emergency situations and it may not be appropriate to seek consent for information sharing if it could cause delays and therefore harm to a child. Practitioners should ensure that sufficient information is shared, as well as consider the urgency with which to share it.
Wherever possible, information should be shared in an appropriate, secure way. Practitioners must always follow their organisation’s policy on security for handling personal information.
Information sharing decisions should be recorded whether or not the decision is taken to share. If the decision is to share, reasons should be cited including what information has been shared and with whom, in line with organisational procedures. If the decision is not to share, it is good practice to record the reasons for this decision and discuss them with the requester. In line with each organisation’s own retention policy, the information should not be kept any longer than is necessary. In some circumstances this may be indefinitely, but if this is the case there should be a review process.
5. Flowchart of When and How to Share Information
6. Confidentiality and the Public Interest
6.1 In deciding whether there is a need to share information you need to consider your legal obligations including:
- Whether the information is confidential; and
- If it is confidential, whether there is a public interest sufficient to justify sharing the information.
6.2 Not all information is confidential. Confidential information is information of some sensitivity, which is not public knowledge, and which has been shared in a relationship where the person giving the information understood that it would not be shared with others. For example, a teacher may know that one of his/her pupils has a parent who misuses drugs. That is information of some sensitivity, but may not be confidential if it is widely known or it has been shared with the teacher in circumstances where the person understood it would be shared with others. If however it is shared with the teacher by the pupil in a counselling session, for example, it would be confidential.
6.3 Confidence is only breached where the sharing of confidential information is not authorised by the person who provided it or to whom it relates. If the information was provided on the understanding that it would be shared with a limited range of people or for limited purposes, then sharing in accordance with that understanding will not be a breach of confidence. Similarly, there will not be a breach of confidence where there is explicit consent to the sharing.
6.4 Even where sharing of confidential information is not authorised, it may lawfully be shared if this can be justified in the public interest. Seeking consent should be the first option, if appropriate. Where consent cannot be obtained to the sharing of the information or is refused, or where seeking it is likely to undermine the prevention, detection or prosecution of a crime, the question of whether there is a sufficient public interest must be judged by the practitioner on the facts of each case. Therefore, where a practitioner has a concern about a child, he or she should not regard refusal of consent as necessarily precluding the sharing of confidential information.
6.5 A public interest can arise in a wide range of circumstances, for example, to protect children or other people from harm, to promote the welfare of children or to prevent crime and disorder. There are also public interests, which in some circumstances may weigh against sharing, including the public interest in maintaining public confidence in the confidentiality of certain services. The key factor in deciding whether or not to share confidential information is proportionality, i.e. whether the proposed sharing is a response in proportion to the need to protect the public interest in question. In making the decision, the practitioner must weigh up what might happen if the information is shared against what might happen if it is not, and make a decision based on a reasonable judgement.
6.6 It is not possible to give guidance to cover every circumstance in which sharing of confidential information without consent will be justified. It is possible however to identify some circumstances in which sharing confidential information without consent will normally be justified in the public interest.
- When there is evidence that the child is suffering or likely to suffer Significant Harm; or
- Where there is reasonable cause to believe that a child may be suffering or likely to suffer Significant Harm; or
- To prevent Significant Harm arising to children or serious harm to adults, including through the prevention, detection and prosecution of serious crime, i.e. any crime which causes or is likely to cause Significant Harm to a child or serious harm to an adult.
Wherever possible, you should seek consent or be open and honest with the individual (and/or their family, where appropriate) from the outset as to why, what, how and with whom, their information will be shared. You should seek consent where an individual may not expect their information to be passed on and they have a genuine choice about this. Consent in relation to personal information does not need to be explicit – it can be implied where to do so would be reasonable, i.e. a referral to a provider or another service. More stringent rules apply to sensitive personal information, when, if consent is necessary then it should be explicit. But even without consent, or explicit consent, it is still possible to share personal information if it is necessary in order to carry out your role, or to protect the vital interests of the individual where, for example, consent cannot be given. Also, if it is unsafe or inappropriate to do so, i.e. where there are concerns that a child is suffering, or is likely to suffer significant harm, you would not need to seek consent. A record of what has been shared should be kept.
It is also possible that an overriding public interest would justify disclosure of the information (or that sharing is required by a court order, other legal obligation or statutory exemption). To overcome the common law duty of confidence, the public interest threshold is not necessarily difficult to meet – particularly in emergency situations. Confidential health information carries a higher threshold, but it should still be possible to proceed where the circumstances are serious enough. As is the case for all personal information processing, initial thought needs to be given as to whether the objective can be achieved by limiting the amount of information shared – does all of the personal information need to be shared to achieve the objective?
7. Child Sex Offender Disclosure Scheme
The Child Sex Offender Review (CSOR) Disclosure Scheme is designed to provide members of the public with a formal mechanism to ask for disclosure about people they are concerned about, who have unsupervised access to children and may therefore pose a risk. This scheme builds on existing, well established third-party disclosures that operate under the Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA).
Police will reveal details confidentially to the person most able to protect the child (usually parents, carers or guardians) if they think it is in the child’s interests.
The scheme has been operating in all 43 police areas in England and Wales since 2010. The scheme is managed by the Police and information can only be accessed through direct application to them.
If a disclosure is made, the information must be kept confidential and only used to keep the child in question safe. Legal action may be taken if confidentiality is breached. A disclosure is delivered in person (as opposed to in writing) with the following warning:
- ‘That the information must only be used for the purpose for which it has been shared i.e. in order to safeguard children;
- The person to whom the disclosure is made will be asked to sign an undertaking that they agree that the information is confidential and they will not disclose this information further;
- A warning should be given that legal proceedings could result if this confidentiality is breached. This should be explained to the person and they must sign the undertaking.’ (Home Office, 2011, p16).
If the person is unwilling to sign the undertaking, the police must consider whether the disclosure should still take place.
8. The Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme
The Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme (DVDS) commenced on 8 March 2014. The DVDS gives members of the public a formal mechanism to make enquires about an individual who they are in a relationship with, or who is in a relationship with someone they know, where there is a concern that the individual may be violent towards their partner. This scheme adds a further dimension to the information sharing about children where there are concerns that domestic violence and abuse is impacting on the care and welfare of the children in the family.
Members of the public can make an application for a disclosure, known as the ‘right to ask’. Anybody can make an enquiry, but information will only be given to someone at risk or a person in a position to safeguard the victim. The scheme is for anyone in an intimate relationship regardless of gender.
Partner agencies can also request disclosure is made of an offender’s past history where it is believed someone is at risk of harm. This is known as ‘right to know’.
If a potentially violent individual is identified as having convictions for violent offences, or information is held about their behaviour which reasonably leads the police and other agencies to believe they pose a risk of harm to their partner, a disclosure will be made.